Differential scanning calorimetry or DSC is a thermoanalytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and reference is measured as a function of temperature. Both the sample and reference are maintained at nearly the same temperature throughout the experiment.
The ElectroForce® 3200 Series III test instruments feature a 225 N (450 N optional) maximum force. With the versatility of static to 300 Hz frequency response, the table-top configuration is adaptable to a variety of biomedical research and engineered materials test applications, including torsion testing, creep under dynamic loading and special environments (hot/cold chambers).
J. A. Woollam M-88 Ellipsometer
Determines multilayer thicknesses, optical constants, crystallinity, surface and interfacial roughness. Has a 300 mm programmable sample stage with motorized rotation and 88 wavelengths from 280 to 760 nm. Completes full spectrum measurement in 1/20 s.
The standard instrument for measuring flour quality: stretching behavior -- baking characteristics -- influence of additives -- rheological optimum. The application of constant flour qualities is of decisive importance for the milling and baking industries. Different baking products make different demands to the flour quality. The Extensograph®-E measures the stretching properties of dough, in particular the resistance to extension and the extensibility, to make reliable statements about the baking behavior of the dough.
In baking, a farinograph measures specific properties of flour. The farinograph is a tool used for measuring the shear and viscosity of a mixture of flour and water. The primary units of the farinograph are Brabender Units, an arbitrary unit of measuring the viscosity of a fluid. The farinograph is a variation of the Brabender Plastograph that has been specialized for the baking industry, and it is used around the world for the objective measurement of a variety of flours.
A baker can formulate end products by using the farinograph's results to determine the following:
The farinograph is a recording dough mixer that measures and records the torque developed by the action of the mixer blades on the dough during mixing. It is used to estimate the water absorption of flours, the relative mixing time, the stability to overmixing, and rheological properties of the dough during mixing. These curves typically consist of an increase in resistance-to-extension (increase in curve height) to an identifiable peak followed by a decline that reflects a decrease in resistance-to-extension.
The Sonometer determines changes in resonant frequency of concrete specimens subjected to alternate cycles of freezing and thawing with the Freeze-Thaw Cabinet. It closely follows design parameters set by the Portland Cement Association. The apparatus consists of a driver and pickup circuit. Electrical power is converted by the driver into mechanical vibrations which are imparted to the specimen under test. The amplitude and frequency of vibrations are controllable having respective ranges of 0 to 30 watts power and 400 to 12,000 cycles per second frequency with an accuracy of better th
Application: GPC is often used to determine the relative molecular weight of polymer samples as well as the distribution of molecular weights. What GPC truly measures is the molecular volume and shape function as defined by the intrinsic viscosity. If comparable standards are used, this relative data can be used to determine molecular weights within ± 5% accuracy.
The Glutomatic system is the standardized international method for establishing the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of gluten.
When baking bread and producing noodles or pasta, the flour gluten content and strength will determine the quality of the finished product.
The effect of gluten quantity and quality in the flour used for breads, cookies, crackers, and pasta is dramatic. The wet gluten quantity of the flour strongly influences the volume of the product. Using the glutomatic system, you can determine the baking quality of wheat and flour.